All topics
contains 65 topics approximately.

Major sources of Finance

There are two main sources of financing a project i.e. Own funds and  Loan funds.  The cost of a project depends on the nature of project i.e. a project set up for the first time, expansion project, modernization project, diversification project, take over project joint venture project, merger project etc.   The more

What is Job Analysis, Job Description and Job Specification

What is Job Analysis?Job Analysis is the prescribed process of identifying the content of a job in terms activities involved and attributes needed to perform the work and recognizes major job requirements. In other words, it means: The technique for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of more

Process of Human Resource Planning

Analyzing the Corporate Level Strategies:Human Resource Planning would start with analyzing corporate level strategies which include expansion, diversification, mergers, acquisitions, technology to be used, reduction in operations, and method of production etc. Therefore, Human Resource Planning would begin with more

Human resource planning and its components

Human resource planning according to Leon C Megginson:According to Leon C Megginson human resources planning is an integrated approach to performing the planning aspects of the personnel function to have a sufficient supply of adequately developed and motivated people to perform the duties and tasks required to meet more

Significance of Human Resource Development (HRD)

Human resource development (HRD) is an important factor for growth and economic development. It can arise at both the nationwide level and the firm-wide level.  The need and importance of human resource development can be measured from the following points: Growth of organization: Growth of organization is linked more

Fundamental Marketing Concept

The several fundamental concepts are:Selling Concepts:This concept attentions on aggressively promoting & pushing its products, it cannot expect its products to get picked up automatically by the customer. The purpose is essentially to sell more stuff to more people, to make more profits.  E.g. Coca Cola more

Types of Strategies

Marketing strategies might differ depending on the unique condition of the individual business. However, there are numerous ways of categorizing some generic strategies. A brief description of the most common categorizing schemes is presented below: Strategies based on market dominance:In this scheme, companies or firms more

Marketing strategies

Marketing strategies help the fundamental underpinning of marketing plans designed and planned to fill market needs and reach marketing aims and objectives. Plans and objectives are usually tested for measurable outcomes. Normally, marketing strategies are developed as multiyear plans, with a strategic plan detailing more

Customer Value Proposition

In marketing, a customer value proposition (CVP) involves sum of benefits which a vendor or seller promises a customer will receive in return for the customer’s associated payment (or other value-transfer). A customer value proposition is a business or marketing statement that defines why a customer should buy a more

Nature, Scope and Importance of Marketing

Nature and Scope of Marketing: Marketing is an ancient art & is everywhere. Formally or informally, people & organizations engage in a vast number of activities that could be called marketing. Good marketing has become an increasingly vital ingredient for business success. It is embedded in everything we do- more

Formation of Companies

Following procedure is followed for formation of companies:In the first stage the availability of name is checked from SECP. SECP ensures that two companies with same name do not get registered.In the second stage Memorandum and Articles of Association are prepared and signed by the sponsors (first shareholders) of more

Types of Companies

There are three major types of companies: Companies Limited by Shares Companies Limited by Guarantee Unlimited Companies Section 15 of the Companies Ordinance 1984 sates: Any three or more persons associated for any legal purpose may, by subscribing their names to a memorandum of association and complying with the more

Types of Companies Limited by Shares

Companies Limited by Shares “Company Limited by Shares" is a company in which the liability of the members (shareholder) of the company is limited to the amount of share capital that they have contributed. This means that the owners will only suffer a loss to the extent of the amount contributed as capital, more

Separate Entity Concept and Separate Legal Entity

Separate Entity Concept forms the base of the accounting principles. It means that for accounting ‘The Business’ is treated independently from The Owners”. This means that even though anything owned by the business belongs to the owners of the business and anything owed by the business is payable by the more

Types of Business Entities

There are two main types of business entities i.e: Profit Oriented or Commercial entities and Non Profit Oriented entities.Profit Oriented / Commercial Entities Profit oriented or commercial entities are those entities where the key aim of carrying out business is to earn profit for the owners of the business. Profit more

What is the meaning of Economic Problem and what are the reasons for its Emergence

Human wants are unlimited and the resources to satisfy them are scarce and are of alternative uses; therefore, human behavior takes the form of choosing.  This give rise to the problem of how it uses scarce resources of alternative uses to attain maximum satisfaction.  This is generally termed as economic more

What is Inductive Methodology of Economics

It involves generalization of observation.  It is also called experimental, statistical, historical and posterion method.  In this, we move from “particular to General”. The hypotheses set in an inductive logic are also subject to future enquiry and tests.  If not found empirically correct, it can be more

What is Deductive Methodology of Economics

It is also known as abstract, axiomatic, a priori analytical.  The economist begins from the principle which are accepted as self-evident or proved proposition and then draws conclusion as consequences of these principles through the process of valid resourcing moves from “General to Particular”. Deductive more

Identify the responsibility of Business Economist

Following are the list of responsibilities for Business Economist. Maintain reasonable profit, Successful forecasting, Awareness and co-ordination, SWOT Analysis, Establish himself in strategic position, Contact with sources and specialists of information. more

What are the scope of Business Economics

Scope of business economics is:Demand analysis and forecasting, Political planning and management, Cost analysis, Pricing policies and practices, Profit management, Capital management, Decision theory under uncertainty, Sales promotion & strategy. more

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